By participating in oral and written sentence-combining activities, students better understand the ways in which sentence structure, usage, and punctuation affect meaning.
New Directions for Teaching. Creative Approaches to Sentence Combining. Teaching both the power of dialects and the dialects of power 5. Grammar and the Teaching of Writing: Teaching style though sentence combining and sentence generating 3.
After students have written their first drafts and feel comfortable with the ideas and organization of their writing, teachers may wish to employ various strategies to help students see grammatical concepts as language choices that can enhance their writing purpose. By connecting their knowledge of oral language to written language, teachers can demystify abstract grammatical terminology so that students can write—and read—with greater competence and confidence.
As students revise and edit their writing, teachers can provide grammar instruction that guides students in their attempts to identify and correct problems in sentence structure and usage.
As the teacher and student discuss the real audience s for the writing, the teacher can ask the student to consider how formal or informal the writing should be, and remind the student that all people adjust the level of formality in oral conversation, depending on their listeners and the speaking context.
Teaching punctuation and mechanics for convention, clarity, and style Reprinted by permission of Constance Weaver: For example, one person in the group might proofread for spelling errors, another person for agreement errors, another person for fragments and run-ons, and another person for punctuation errors.
Students who are native speakers of English already know English grammar.
Lessons to Share on Teaching Grammar in Context. Standards for the English Language Arts. Students can explore sentence variety, length, parallelism, and other syntactic devices by comparing their sentences with sentences from other writers.
In writing conferences, for example, teachers can help students revise for effective word choices. A Guide for the Teacher of Basic Writing. Researchers agree that it is more effective to teach punctuation, sentence variety, and usage in the context of writing than to approach the topic by teaching isolated skills Calkins, ; DiStefano and Killion, ; Harris, Based on the writing abilities of their students, teachers can assign different proofreading tasks to specific individuals in each group.
Students employ a wide range of strategies as they write and use different writing process elements appropriately to communicate with different audiences for a variety of purposes p. The teacher can then help the student identify words in his or her writing that change the level of formality of the writing.
Students adjust their use of spoken, written, and visual language e. The national content standards for English language arts are based on professional research and best classroom practices.
In addition, research indicates that the transfer of formal grammar instruction to writing is not applicable to larger elements of composition. As students develop increasing skill in proofreading, they become responsible for more proofreading areas.
Integrating grammar instruction into the revising and editing process helps students make immediate applications, thus allowing them to see the relevance of grammar to their own writing. This strategy helps both the partner and the writer to recognize when, for example, too many sentences begin with "It is" or "There are.
Teaching sentence sense through the manipulation of syntactic elements 4. As teachers integrate grammar instruction with writing instruction, they should use the grammar terms that make sense to the students. As students generate more complex sentences from shorter ones, they discover how the arrangement of phrases and clauses, for example, affects meaning and its impact on their readers.
By incorporating grammar terms naturally into the processes of revising, editing, and proofreading, teachers help students understand and apply grammar purposefully to their own writing. It is also important for students to discover that grammar, spelling, and punctuation are useful not only in the context of fixing problems or mistakes; they can be studied effectively in a workshop context in which students work together to expand their repertoire of syntactic and verbal styles.
When students connect the study of grammar and language patterns to the wider purposes of communication and artistic development, they are considerably more likely to incorporate such study into their working knowledge" p.
Students apply knowledge of language structure, language conventions e. After the writer revises the sentences, the partner can read the sentences aloud.The Braddock Essays: Ede, Lisa. Composition Research: Lauer, Janice M., et al.
Building Skills in Reading, Writing, and Research Koechlin, Carol, & Sandi Zwaan. Knowing How: Researching and Writing Nonfiction Writing Research Papers: A Guide to the Process.
Top shelves for On Writing Research (showing of 19). our-library. 2 people. IELTS Writing Task 2 Format Structure Tips Agree Disagree Argument Essay scorer SYED.
Introduction to Research for Essay Writing from University of California, Irvine. Course 4: Introduction to Research for Essay Writing This is the last course in the Academic Writing specialization before the capstone project. By the end of this. Find great deals for On Writing Research: The Braddock Essays, by Lisa S.
Ede (, Paperback). Shop with confidence on eBay! Lanhee J. Chen, Ph.D. is the David and Diane Steffy Research Fellow at the Hoover Institution; Director of Domestic Policy Studies and Lecturer in the Public Policy Program at Stanford University; and an affiliate of Stanford’s Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies.Download