Submitted by Professor Nazeer Ahmed Like a benevolent mother opening her arms to all the children in the neighborhood, Africa held its arms open for successive waves of refugees from Arabia.
Ina Muslim army from Morocco, equipped with muskets, crossed the Sahara and defeated the vastly larger forces of Songhay. Traditionally, the society of Songhay was made up of "masters of the soil," that is, farmers, herdsmen, and "masters of the waters," or fisherfolk.
Mysticism of the speculative kind, with its focus on otherworldliness, was increasingly being supplanted by the strands which emphasized involvement in societal affairs and even political activism.
Mostly beyond the influence of Islam, a number of these central African peoples had begun their own process of state formation by around A. While Egypt, Kush, and Ethiopia had developed writing, and other areas borrowed the Arabic script, many sub-Saharan African societies were preliterate and transmitted their knowledge, skills, and traditions by oral methods and direct instruction.
As the tensions mounted between Usuman and the king of Gobir, Usuman, whose life was in danger, was forced to disengage from society by moving from Degel to an alternative place Gudu to establish a new just society based on his Islamic reformist program.
The Ethiopian kingdom that grew from Axum was perhaps the most important of the African Christian outposts. Chief among these changes was the arrival of the followers of the Prophet Muhammad.
Since the s, Somalia has been beset by foreign invasions and internal instability making it impossible to reconstruct a civil life. Kilwa and Mogadishu minted their own coins by the 14th century, and cowrie shells were also used as a means of exchange.
Taking advantage of the southwest monsoons, he sailed across the Indian Ocean, and landed at Cochin on the Malabar coast of India in May Through deft diplomacy, he kept at Bay the British and the other European powers who had consolidated their hold on much of Asia.
Christian missionaries appeared on the heels of the colonizers and set up proselytizing missions. A vicious cycle of poverty and lack of education has taken its toll in Mozambique, Somalia and Malawi.
The mediating and integrating functions of Islamic learning in the segmentary societies of the Saharan nomads was expressed through the influence of the marabouts who attempted to establish harmony between warring groups. The Coastal Trading Ports A first century Greek account of the Indian Ocean, The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, mentioned some ports in East Africa but was somewhat vague as to the nature of the local inhabitants; that is, whether they were Africans or immigrants from the Arabian peninsula.
Several reasons have been suggested for this militancy. Bayajida got a son named Bawo from Daura. Sunni Ali was a great tactical commander and a ruthless leader. These were conquest states that drew on the taxes, tribute, and military support of the subordinate areas, lineages, and villages.
In the 13th and 14th centuries an Ethiopian Christian state emerged under a dynasty that traced its origins back to the marriage of Solomon and Sheba. In general they were not forced to convert, but they suffered from restrictions. His excellence in Islamic erudition was acknowledged when scholars from the major towns of Morocco came to hear his lectures in Marrakech.
Finally, we should note that one of the least known aspects of African societies prior to the 20th century is the size and dynamic of their populations. Merchants, scholars, and travelers from elsewhere in Islam visited the towns.
The Safavids mounted a concerted effort to recapture the Straits of Hormuz from the Portuguese which they did in CE with some help from the British navy but it was a limited local engagement. Groups like the Almohades are characteristic within Islamic history, often developing in peripheral areas and dedicated to a purification of society by returning to the original teachings of the Prophet.
More importantly, Hausa society became transformed with the state and its institutions became Islamized. It was not until when an Ottoman Turkish armada engaged a Portuguese fleet off the coast of Tanzania and inflicted heavy losses upon it that the Portuguese menace was contained.
Sailing further south, he landed at Kilwa in Tanzania.
The Germans organized their colonies under the name of Tanganyika. Expansion ceased and the central disciplines of Islamic philosophytheologylaw and mysticism became more widespread and the gradual conversions of the populations within the empire occurred.
The reasons why, by the end of the 10th century, a large part of the population had converted to Islam are diverse. Recent careful study, however, has raised doubts about this conquest hypothesis which is considered to be more fiction than fact.
The development of unified states provided an overarching structure that allowed the various groups and communities to coexist. Fragmentation and a "frontier" open to new settlement were constant features in much of African history.
After their defeat in World War I the Germans surrendered their colonies to the British except for Rwanda and Burundi which were handed over to the Belgians.
The Quran does not give much detail about the right conduct with non-Muslims, in principle recognizing the religion of "People of the book" Jews, Christians, and sometimes others as well and securing a separate tax from them inlieu of the zakat imposed upon Muslim subjects.
The original concept of jihad did not include agressive warfare against non-Muslims, but "holy war" was sometimes waged by Muslims whose interpretation of the Koran allowed them such latitude.
Swahili culture was a dynamic hybrid, and the Swahili people spread their language and culture along the coast of East Africa. Through these centuries, there was a constant influx of traders from Oman and Persia into the Swahel. Many African peoples shared an underlying belief in a creator deity whose power and action were expressed through spirits or lesser gods and through the founding ancestors of the group.The Spread Of Islam Arab tribes, and also to incorporate Arabia into a region controlled by the political power of Medina.
United by their faith in God and a commitment to Islam had vastly increased its territory in the Near East and Africa. The new conquests of. The spread of Islam in Africa. Africa was the first continent, outside of Arabia that Islam spread to in the early 7th century.
The Swahili language is part of a language group called Bantu and its original speakers were from West Africa. Their migration to East Africa changed, not only the linguistic traditions of Africa but everything. ISLAM: ISLAM IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA Islam entered Africa within decades of its inception in the seventh century ce.
In North Africa its spread was related to the empire-building process which took Islam to Morocco and Spain in the far west and to India in the east whereas in the rest of Africa its diffusion followed a different path. The African dimension goes back to ce when the first.
While the presence of Islam in West Africa dates back to eighth century, the spread of the faith in regions that are now the modern states of Senegal, Gambia, Guinea, Burkina Faso, Niger, Mali and Nigeria, was in actuality, a gradual and complex process.
Africa and the Spread of Islam. Details Category: History Week 5 Published on Saturday, 29 December In the 13th and 14th centuries an Ethiopian Christian state emerged under a dynasty that traced its origins back to the marriage of Solomon and Sheba. The Swahili Coast Of East Africa.
While the kingdoms of West Africa came. Trace The Spread Of Islam From Its Origins In Arabia To West And East Africa.
Spread of Islam Andrew Lowery HIS /CA September18, Kerrin Conroy Spread of Islam Islam is not only one of the three major monotheistic religions in the world today, it is also it is the fastest growing.
Additionally, political conflict between Islamic groups and the West play out on the international stage.Download